Anti-Jewish measures in the Netherlands since 1940

01/07/1940 Jews prohibited from working in the air protection service.
06/09/1940 Jews prohibited from being employed in the civil service. Jews who already are employed should not be promoted. This measure was, shortly after , extended from departments and universities to all subsidized institutions.
26/09/1940 Prohibited to publish Jewish newspapers, except “Het Joodsche Weekblad”.
05/10/1940 All employees at universities, departments and subsidized institutions have to fill out an Aryan declaration about their origin.
22/10/1940 All Jewish businessmen had to have their company registered. The regulation controls, in general terms, who is and who is not to be regarded as Jewish. Here, this description is intended to ensure that the companies cannot easily be transferred to others. This regulation, however, will later on widely be applied regarding deportations: Everyone who has three or more Jewish grandparents and is a member of a Jewish parish or is married to a Jew, will be considered as Jewish.
04/11/1940 Announcement that on November 21st, all Jewish officials will be suspended and, later on, discharged.
19/12/1940 Jews prohibited from employing German household staff.
09/01/1941 Jews prohibited from visiting cinemas.
10/01/1941 All Jews or people with at least one Jewish grandparent must register at the population registry. Within four weeks after the announcement, all municipalities have to make a report, which is to be completed within the prescribed period. Only a few people (twenty according to Dr. Lou de Jong) within the Jewish population refuse to cooperate. Officially 160,820 Jews are registered, of which 15,549 were half- Jews and 5,719 quarter-Jews.
16/01/1941 For Amsterdam, the city where the vast majority of the Jewish population lives, an additional measure is applied. They also need to specify how many houses and how many stores are in the possession of Jewish people , where their schools and churches are situated, what tram and bus services operate in these neighbourhoods and what cultural institutions are available.
12/02/1941 The quarter in Amsterdam with many Jewish inhabitants is fenced in with barbed wire and renamed the “Joodsche Wijk” (Jewish quarter). Shortly after, the barriers are taken away, but the signs “Joodsche Wijk” remained in place.
13/02/1941 Establishment of the Jewish Council, which had been given the dubious order to implement all German measures, including determining which group of Jews has to be transported next and to nip all protests in the bud immediately. The only Jewish newspaper, “Het Joodsche Weekblad” (the Jewish Weekly), was to be used for this purpose.
22/02/1941 First arrests of 427 Jews who are deported to Mauthausen, after violent protests against the measures. In response to this , the February strike breaks out, the one and only strike against anti-Jewish measures in the entire war.
15/04/1941 Jewish people prohibited from having radios in their possession.
01/05/1941 Jewish lawyers and doctors are not allowed to have non-Jewish clients and patients.
01/05/1941 Jews are no longer allowed to visit markets.
31/05/1941 Jews are no longer allowed to visit swimming pools and beaches.
11/06/1941 Second deportation of 300 Jews from Amsterdam to Mauthausen.
08/08/1941 First LiRo (Lippman-Rosenthal) regulation VO 148/1941: Jews are obliged to transfer their bank balances of more than a thousand guilders (about 450 euros) to the Lippmann-Rosenthal Bank, a former Jewish bank, taken over by the Germans.
01/09/1941 Jewish children are not allowed to go to public schools.
14/09/1941 Third roundup in Twente; hundreds of Jewish men were arrested and deported.
15/09/1941 Prohibited for Jews to visit parks, zoos, cafés, restaurants, hotels, theatres and museums.
18/09/1941 Fourth roundup in Gelderland; hundred Jews are arrested and deported.
09/01/1942 Jewish identity cards have to be provided with a “J”.
10/01/1942 Labour camps for Jews are set up in the east and north of the country.
20/03/1942 Prohibited for Jews to possess or to drive any means of transport.
26/03/1942 Prohibited for Jews to marry non-Jews.
03/05/1942 All Jews over six years of age have to wear a yellow six-pointed Star of David with the word “Jew”, clearly visible their clothing.
21/05/1942 Second LiRo Regulation VO 58/1942: Jews are obliged to hand in all their gold, silver, antiques, art, and cultural valuables at Lippmann-Rosenthal in the Sarphati street in Amsterdam.
12/06/1942 Jews are only allowed to shop in a limited number of stores during a limited period of time.
30/06/1942 Setting of a curfew. Jews must be at home between 20.00 and 06.00 hours.
05/07/1942 First summons of the Jewish Council are distributed.
06/07/1942 Prohibited for Jews to phone and to pay visits to non-Jews.
14/07/1942 First transport of Amsterdam Jews to transit camp Westerbork.
15/07/1942 The first train with 1,135 Jews leaves from Westerbork to Auschwitz. Until September 13th, 1944, a train will be going to Auschwitz or Sobibor weekly.
22/07/1942 The Hollandsche Schouwburg is taken into service as a gathering place where the Jews are to report themselves, and retrieved and arrested Jews are being held.
01/10/1942 Jews in Dutch labour camps are transferred to Westerbork.
15/10/1942 The crèche at the Plantage Middenlaan 31 is being used as an annex to the Hollandsche Schouwburg. Jewish children, separated from their parents, are waiting to be deported.
15/01/1943 All foundlings are considered Jewish children, they are brought to the nursery in Amsterdam and subsequently deported.
16/01/1943 The first group of 450 Jews is deported from the Hollandsche Schouwburg to labour camp Vught. During the war, a total of 12,000 Jews will be imprisoned.
02/03/1943 First transport from Westerbork to the new extermination camp Sobibor.
15/03/1943 The Germans found out that about 25,000 Jews were in hiding. During a meeting in The Hague, Harster, Zopf and Lages decide to work with a premium system to retrieve Jews in hiding. Harster sets the premium at seven guilders and fifty cents a Jew, an amount that could be doubled if the Jewish arrestee had violated regulations.
10/04/1943 Prohibited for Jews to reside in the provinces Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe, Overijssel, Gelderland, Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg.
22/04/1943 Prohibited for Jews to reside in the provinces of Utrecht, South and North Holland, except Amsterdam. With the introduction of these measures all Jews were in German captivity, with the exception of a limited number of Amsterdam Jews, some with exceptional exemption (“Sperre”) and Jews in hiding.
06/07/1943 Children's transport from Westerbork to Sobibor.
29/09/1943 Transport of the last remaining Jews from Amsterdam to Westerbork.
19/11/1943 The Hollandsche Schouwburg closes after the last group of Jews, arrested out of hiding, is deported.
19/11/1943 First transport from Westerbork to Theresiënstadt.
11/01/1944 First transport from Westerbork to concentration camp Bergen-Belsen.
01/05/1944 Introduction of the TD card, the “Tweede Distributiestamkaart” (second distribution master card), in addition to the distribution map for the procurement of food, which had been introduced in the Netherlands in 1939. The TD card was linked to the control of identity cards in order to prevent Jews in hiding and members of the resistance from getting food. Moreover it would be easier to track them down during their attempts to do so.
02/06/1944 Last transport from camp Vught to Auschwitz.
13/09/1944 Last transport from Westerbork.

Informatie

Translated by:
Chrit Houben
Article by:
Frans van den Muijsenberg
Published on:
09-08-2012
Last edit on:
08-08-2016
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