Wir haben es nicht gewusst
When asked about their knowledge about the extermination of 6 million Jews by the Nazis, many Germans answered that they did not know about it (Wir haben es nicht gewusst). However, millions of them openly voted for the anti-Semitic Nazi party in 1933, and therefore founded the basis for what is now commonly known by the term Holocaust. What did the German population really know about the fate of the Jews and what was their opinion about it?
On 16 June 1943, Wehrmacht officer Wilm Hosenfeld wrote in his diary "Countless Jews were killed, without reason, pointless, without even thinking about it". He was stationed in Warsaw, where during springtime, the last remaining Jews in the ghetto rebelled against the Germans, because they refused to be deported to the gas chambers like tame sheep. Hosenfeld knew the fate of the Jews being deported from Warsaw. Already in April 1942 he wrote about the gassing of Jews. "Now the last Jews in the ghetto have been exterminated", he wrote in his diary. "By committing this heinous mass murder of the Jews, we have lost the war. [...] We deserve no mercy, we are all guilty."
Not only knew Hosenfeld that the Jews were being exterminated, he also expressly condemned it. By saving two Jews he put his words into action. This heroic deed was the basis for the film "The Pianist" (2002). On 16 February 2009, the Holocaust institute Yad Vashem (Israel) awarded him with the title Righteous Among the Nations. By 1 January 2009, Yad Vashem rewarded 460 Germans with the same title. A poor number, compared to the Netherlands and Poland, where respectively 4,947 and 6,135 civilians were awarded the title Righteous Among the Nations. There was hardly any active resistance against the persecution of Jews in Germany, but that doesnít mean that the German people massively and without reservation approved the government policy against Jews. The attitude of the Germans was more versatile than one would expect in a dictatorship.